10 Drugs Used In Cases of Low Platelets
Platelets are small and colorless disc-shaped blood cells that originated from megakaryocyte fragmentation. A normal platelet count is about 150-350×109 in 1 mm³ blood. What does low platelets mean? Having low platelets means having less than 150,000 platelets per microliter of circulating blood.
A patient having his blood platelets low in number has a medical condition called thrombocytopenia. This can vary in severity. It will be a really horrible situation to experience sudden and uncontrolled gushing out of blood from the nose, gums and other openings of the body. And sadly, it could happen with a really low platelet count. Before that happens, better manage it immediately. This may usually be a costly endeavor but there are affordable options such as all-natural remedies you can learn from money back guaranteed materials like Conquer Low Platelets.
The most common drugs used for the treatment of thrombocytopenia (low platelets):
1. Nplate (romiplostim)
2. Promacta (eltrombopag)
5. Intravenous immune globulin
8. Lithium carbonate
9. Folic acid
10. Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
There are several thrombocytopenia treatment options but what we have below are drugs usually observed in the management of the medical condition.
It is a synthetic protein drug used for the treatment of low platelet count in chronic immune thrombocytopenia. This drug works by increasing the number of platelets produced in the bone marrow. This is used to prevent bleeding and bruising. This is not merely utilized for the treatment of any incidence of thrombocytopenia other than chronic immune thrombocytopenia. In particular, must not be used for myelodysplastic syndrome.
The side effects of this medication include nausea, loss of appetite, sore throat, muscle pains, swelling of the joints, and hair loss. The more difficult side effects include: pain in the chest, coughing up blood, rapid heart beat and shortness of breath. A very rare adverse reaction includes yellow teeth discolouration (tooth staining).
During the course of treatment with the medication, it is needed to perform constant monitoring and control of platelet count because a sudden increase could lead to abnormal occurrence of thrombus.
It is also used to increase platelet counts in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), against bruising and bleeding. Moreover, Eltrombopag in cases of increasing platelet count for hepatitis C virus infection to allow carrying out therapy with interferon and ribavirin. However, this combination can cause serious damage to the liver. If the patient encounter any of the symptoms (like yellowish color of the skin along with stomach pain, fatigue, confusion), it’s important to contact a physician instantly. Eltrombopag other than these medical conditions should not be used for simply increasing platelet counts it’s likely that it would result to an increased amount without returning to normal levels. It may give rise to thrombus or cataracts. Also, it may lead to many unwanted symptoms as dizziness, trouble with vision, diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain, etc.
It is a drug containing human normal immunoglobulin. It is used to treat primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Can be also used for the treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome, Kawasaki disease, multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), primary immunodeficiency syndromes, etc.
The side effects include headache, pain in the limbs, cough, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and fever.
These are the first line drug of choice for the treatment of idiopathic thrombotic purpura. It has an immunosuppressor capability. Most often, they are continually used until the platelet count returns to normal (usually 2-6 weeks). After discontinuation of corticosteroids, it may result to possible recurrence; but caution is recommended in long-term use of these drugs due to potential adverse effects. The side effects can be cataracts, osteoporosis, increased risk of infection and the occurrence of high blood sugar. If the drug has been taken more than 3 months, it is recommended to take supplements of calcium and vitamin D.
Intravenous immune globulin
It is administered intravenously, especially in situations where it is necessary to increase the number of platelets in the shortest time possible. It is given for the purpose of stopping excessive bleeding and in cases of urgent need for increasing the number of platelets possibly due to surgical intervention.
It is a synthetic steroid derivative and is used to treat immune thrombocytopenic purpura. It can be used for menorrhagia, pain in the chest and premenstrual syndrome.
Side effects includes the possible appearance of tumors in the liver and increased risk of ovarian tumors.
Rituximab (Rituxan, MabThera)
It is a fusion protein monoclonal antibody against CD20, which is found primarily on the surface of B lymphocytes. Leads to the destruction of B lymphocytes and is used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases (immune thrombocytopenic purpura and rheumatoid arthritis), lymphoma, and leukemia. Also used in transplantation in order to reduce transplant rejection.
Lithium carbonate can also be used to increase the number of platelets. Usually given for symptoms of manic depression (depression, aggression, hyperactivity). May cause teratogenic effects. Its use for pregnancy should be carefully controlled.
It is used to treat blood disorders like anemia. Supports the creation of new cells and prevents DNA damage. Folic acid also works for the renewal of epithelial cells in the digestive tract, as well as the vaginal epithelium. In uncontrolled amount, may lead to gastritis, vaginal infection and inflammation. It is recommended for use as a supplement during pregnancy because of its significance in development of the fetus. Folic acid deficiency can cause severe birth defects that includes abnormalities in the brain of a child, known as neural tube defects. In some cases where no noticeable signs of folic acid deficiency can be seen, it will still be possible even after childbirth to be diagnosed of neural tube defects. Folic acid can be found in green vegetables, beans, etc.
It aids in the creation of new blood cells especially erythrocytes. The symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include: confusion, depression, tiredness, peripheral neuropathy, psychosis, megaloblastic anemia, dementia, poor memory, nausea, glossitis, constipation, and loss of appetite. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency in children are exacerbated with development and growth, movement disorders and megaloblastic anemia. Read vitamin and minerals for low blood platelets.
Vitamin B12 deficiency causes certain biochemical changes in the body due to decreased enzyme activity. More precisely, methionine synthase decreased activity which causes an accumulation of homocysteine and decreased activity of L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase resulting to accumulation of methylmalonic acid. Persons with mild deficiency of vitamin B12 can have elevated levels for these compounds, but does not necessarily have to show visible symptoms specific to the lack of this vitamin.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can occur due to various factors but it usually takes 3-5 years before the appearance of symptoms can be observed. Neurological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency may be present without the evidence of anemia, which occurs in 75% to 90% of people who lack this vitamin. Symptoms include a sense of numbness on the hands and feet, difficulty in walking, failing memory, disorientation, myelopathy, mood swings, irritability, mononeuropathy (optical or olfactory), autonomic neuropathy (impotence, urinary or fecal incontinence), and problems with concentration. In children appears irritability, abnormal growth and development, apathy, and anorexia.
Vitamin B12 is found in foods of animal origin. Good sources are fish, shellfish, dairy products, liver, kidney, eggs, veal, and pork.
Plant foods rarely contain vitamin B12. For example. Tempeh – fermented traditional soy product (in very small amounts). Vegetarians are recommended to eat adequate eggs and dairy products to get the required amount of vitamin B12. Vegans and individuals in macrobiotic diet should also give attention to the intake of this vitamin. Many of them actually choose vitamin B12 intake in the form of supplements.
There you have the list of some commonly used drugs and medications one can observe in cases of low platelets. To learn more about what are low platelets in blood and the diseases that causes it, click here.
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